Υπερικό (Hypericum)

Hypericum olympicum

     Hypericum balearicum

  Hypericum coris

  Hypericum epicoides

  Hypericum inodorum

Hypericum lanceolatum

  Hypericum olympicum

  Slender St.John’s- wort,Hypericum pulchrum

  Hypericum tomentosum

  Hypericum uralum

Το Υπερικό (Hypericum) είναι γένος φυτών  της οικογένειας  των  Clusiaceae,στο οποίο περιλαμβάνονται περίπου 150 είδη, ποώδη, θαμνώδη ή φρύγανα. Κυριότερα είδη είναι το Hypericum perforatum (Υπερικόν το διάτρητον, κοινώς βάλσαμο , βαλσαμόχορτο ή σπαθίδα) και το Hypericum perfoliatum (Υπερικόν το διαμπερές, κοινώς λειχηνόχορτο ή σταρίδα.
Το βαλσαμόχορτο είναι αειθαλές φυτό με ύψος περίπου ένα μέτρο και άνθη με έντονο κίτρινο χρώμα, τα οποία εμφανίζονται περίπου στα μέσα Ιουνίου. Είναι ενδημικό φυτό σε ολόκληρη σχεδόν την ευρωπαϊκή ήπειρο.

Χρήσεις

Το υπερικό ή βαλσαμόχορτο υπήρξε αντικείμενο της Ιατρικής από τα αρχαία χρόνια. Οι αρχαίοι Έλληνες το χρησιμοποιούσαν ως διουρητικό, επουλωτικό, εμμηναγωγό και αιμοστατικό.
Σήμερα στις ΗΠΑ και σε πολλές άλλες χώρες χρησιμοποιείται υπό μορφή χαπιών για την αντιμετώπιση της ήπιας και μέτριας κατάθλιψης. Χρησιμοποιείται, επίσης, ως αντισπασμωδικό και για την καταπολέμηση της αϋπνίας.

Εξωτερική χρήση:

 Χρησιμοποιείται υπό μορφή βάμματος, αφού εκχυλισθεί το φρέσκο φυτό σε ελαιόλαδο μέσα σε γυάλινα βάζα καλά κλεισμένα, που μένουν στον ήλιο επί 40 ημέρες περίπου, ως επουλωτικό σε πληγές, ερεθισμούς και εγκαύματα πρώτου βαθμού.

Εσωτερική χρήση:

 Σαν τσάι συνήθως ένα κουταλάκι του γλυκού ξερά τριμμένα φύλλα και άνθη σε μία κούπα καυτό νερό, που την σκεπάζουμε και την αφήνουμε σκεπασμένη για 10 με 15 λεπτά, για να περάσουν όλα τα συστατικά του φυτού στο νερό, από μία μέχρι τρεις φορές την ημέρα.

 Σε κάψουλες ή χάπια.

 Σε αλκοολούχο βάμμα.

Γενικές οδηγίες – προφυλάξεις:

Το υπερικό μπορεί να επηρεάσει το συκώτι προκαλώντας ευαισθησία του ατόμου στο φως. Στο δέρμα ορισμένων ατόμων μπορεί να προκαλέσει αντιδράσεις που εκδηλώνονται με δερματικούς ερεθισμούς,
Σύμφωνα με ορισμένους ερευνητές το υπερικό μπορεί να επηρεάσει το μεταβολισμό ορισμένων ενζύμων. Κατά συνέπεια, χρειάζεται προσοχή όταν χορηγείται ταυτόχρονα με άλλα φάρμακα ή και με ορισμένα τρόφιμα.

Hypericum

 Hypericum is a genus of about 400 species of flowring plants in the family f Hypericaceae  (formerly often considered a subfamily of Clusiaceae).

The genus has a nearly worldwide distribution, missing only from tropical  lowlands, deserts and polar-regions . All members of the genus may be referred to as St. John’s wort, though they are also commonly just called hypericum, and some are known as tutsan. The marsh St. John’s-worts are nowadays separated into the genus Triadenum.
St. John’s-worts vary from annual  or perennial herbaceous herbs  5–10 cm tall to shrubs and small treest up to 12 m tall. The leaves l are opposite, simple oval, 1–8 cm long, either deciduous or evergreen. The flowers vary from pale to dark yellow, and from 0.5–6 cm in diameter, with five (rarely four) petals. The fruit  is usually a dry capsule which splits to release the numerous small seeds; in some species it is fleshy and berry-like.

Uses of Hypericum

 

Some species are used as orgamental plants and have large, showy flowers. Numerous hybrids  and cultiviars  have been developed for use in horticulture , such as Hyrpericum moserianum  (H.calycinum H.patulum) and Hypericum calycinum cv. ‘Hidcote’.
St. John’s-worts can occur as nuisance weeds  in farmland and gardens. On pastures, some can be more than a nuisance, causing debilitating photosensitivity and sometimes abortion  in livestockl. The beetles Chrysolina quandrigemina ,Chrysolina hyperici  and the St.John’s- wort Root Borer  (Agrilus hyperici) like to feed on Common St.John’s-wort (H. perforatum) and have been used for biocontol  where the plant has become an invasive weed .
Hypericum species are the only known food plants of the caterpillar of the Treble- bar , a species of moth. Other Lepidoptera  species whose larvae sometimes feed on Hypericum include Common Emerald ,The Engrailed  (recorded on Imperforate St.John’s-wort , H. maculatum), Grey Pug and Seraceous Hebrew Character.

Medical properties

Common St. John’s -wort (H. perforatum) has long been used in herbalism . It was known to have medical properties in Classical Antiquity and was a standard component of theriacs, from the Mithridate  ofAulus Cornelius Celcus ‘ De Medicina  to the Venice treacle of d’Amsterdammer Apotheek in 1686. Folk usages included oily extract (“St. John’s oil”) and Hypericum snaps.
H. perforatum is the most potent species and it is today grown commercially for use in herbalism and medicine; other St. John’s-worts possess interesting properties and chemical compounds  but are not well researched. As these secondary compounds  appear to be related to deterring herbivores , they are present in varying and unpredictable quantities: still, a number of high-yield cultiviars have been developed.
Two main compounds of interest have been studied in more detail:hyperforin and hypericin . However, the pharmacology of H. perforatum is not resolved, and at least its antipresant  properties are caused by a wide range of factors interacting. As psychiatric medication, it is usually taken as pills, or as tea. Few standardised preparations are available, and research has mainly studied alcoholic extracts and isolated compounds. What research data exists supports a noticeable effect in many cases of light and medium depression , but no significant improvement of severe depression.
Another common use of H. perforatum is as an oily extract: the ruby -red oil appears to be strongly antibiotic, assisting healing of wounds,first-degree burns  and concussions. Both hypericin and hyperforin are reported to have antibiotic properties. Justifying this view with the then-current doctrine of signatures,herbalist  William Coles (1626–1662) wrote in the 17th century that

“The little holes whereof the leaves of Saint Johns wort are full, doe resemble all the pores of the skin and therefore it is profitable for all hurts and wounds that can happen thereunto.”

There is evidence that St. John’s-worts can act as abortifacients  since interference with the Combined oral contraceptive pill  has occurred. Complications have also been observed in other human patients: high-dosage H. perforatum interacts with a wide range of medications due to activation of the Pragnane X reseptor detoxification pathway, as well as causing photosensitivity. It is strongly recommended not to take St. John’s-wort during pregnancy or when tanning, and it has caused a few deaths in patients undergoing anti-HIV/AIDS and  cancer therapy. Extremely high doses (rarely reached with OTC  preparations) are heparotoxic .Hypericum extract, by inducing both the CYP3A4  and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), can reduce the plasma concentrations of different antineoplastic agents such as imatinib ,irinotecan and docetaxel , thus reducing the clinical efficacy of these drugs.
Hypericum perforatum may be capable of reducing the physical signs of opiate withdrawal.
Hypericum is a common treatment in homeopathy, used for the healing of deep wounds or as a relief from depression.

Hypericin

Hyperforin

Selected species

Hypericum acmosepalum

Hypericum acostanum

Hypericum addingtonii

Hypericum adenotrichum

Hypericum aegypticum

Hypericum anagalloides- Creeping St.Johm’s-wort
Hypericum androsaemum
Hypericum annulatum
Hypericum aphyllum
Hypericum ascyron
Hypericum asplundii
Hypericum athoum
Hypericum atomarium
Hypericum augustinii
Hypericum balearicum
Hypericum balfourii
Hypericum barbatum
Hypericum beanii
Hypericum bellum
Hypericum boreale – Northern St. John’s-wort
Hypericum buckleii – Blue Ridge St. John’s-wort
Hypericum bupleuroides
Hypericum calycinum – Great St. John’s-wort, Jerusalem Star, “Rose of Sharon”, “Aaron’s Beard”

Hypericum calycinum cv. ‘Hidcote’

Hypericum canadense L. – Canadian St. John’s-wort, Irish St. John’s-wort

Hypericum canariense – Canary Islands St. John’s-wort
Hypericum capitatum
Hypericum cerastoides
Hypericum choisianum
Hypericum cistifolium
Hypericum concinnum – Goldwire
Hypericum confertum
Hypericum cordifolium
Hypericum coris
Hypericum crenulatum
Hypericum crux-andreae
Hypericum cumulicola – Highlands Scrub Hypericum
Hypericum curvisepalum
Hypericum delphicum
Hypericum densiflorum – Glade St. John’s-wort, Dense St.John’s-wort.
Hypericum denticulatum Walt. – Coppery St. John’s-wort
Hypericum dissimulatum – Disguised St. John’s-wort
Hypericum dyeri
Hypericum eastwoodianum
Hypericum elegans
Hypericum ellipticum[verification needed]
Hypericum elodes – Marsh Hypericum
Hypericum elongatum
Hypericum empetrifolium
Hypericum erectum
Hypericum ericoides
Hypericum fasciculatum
Hypericum fieriense
Hypericum foliosum
Hypericum formosum – Western St. John’s-wort
Hypericum forrestii
Hypericum fragile
Hypericum frondosum – Cedarglade St. Johns-wort
Hypericum galioides
Hypericum gentianoides (L.) BSP. – Orange-grass St. John’s-wort, Pinweed
Hypericum glandulosum
Hypericum gnidiifolium
Hypericum gramineum
Hypericum grandifolium
Hypericum graveolens
Hypericum hartwegii
Hypericum henryi
Hypericum hircinum – Stinking Tutsan
Hypericum hirsutum L. – Hairy St. John’s-wort
Hypericum hookerianum
Hypericum humifusum L. – Trailing St. John’s-wort
Hypericum hypericoides
Hypericum hyssopifolium
Hypericum × inodorum
Hypericum japonicum
Hypericum kalmianum – Kalm’s St. John’s-wort
Hypericum kamtschaticum Ledeb.
Hypericum kelleri
Hypericum kotschyanum
Hypericum kouytchense
Hypericum lagarocladum
Hypericum lancasteri – Lancaster’s St. John’s-wort
Hypericum lanceolatum
Hypericum lanuginosum
Hypericum leschenaultii
Hypericum linariifolium – Toadflax-leaved St. John’s-wort
Hypericum linarioides
Hypericum llanganaticum
Hypericum lobbii
Hypericum lobocarpum
Hypericum maclarenii
Hypericum maculatum – Imperforate St. John’s-wort
Hypericum maguirei
Hypericum majus – Larger Canadian St. John’s-wort
Hypericum matangense
Hypericum monogynum
Hypericum montanum L. – Pale St. John’s-wort
Hypericum montbretii
Hypericum × moserianum
Hypericum mutilum L. – Dwarf St. John’s-wort
Hypericum myricariifolium Hieron.
Hypericum nanum
Hypericum nudiflorum
Hypericum nummularium – Round-leaved St. John’s-wort
Hypericum oblongifolium
Hypericum olympicum
Hypericum orientale
Hypericum origanifolium
Hypericum pallens
Hypericum patulum Thunb
Hypericum peninsulare
Hypericum perfoliatum
Hypericum perforatum – Common St. John’s-wort, Perforate St John’s-wort, Tipton’s Weed, Klamath Weed

Hypericum perforatum cv. ‘Anthos’

Hypericum prietoi

Hypericum prolificum – Shrubby St. John’s-wort
Hypericum pseudohenryi – Irish Tutsan
Hypericum pulchrum – Slender St. John’s-wort
Hypericum punctatum Lam. – Spotted St. John’s-wort
Hypericum quitense
Hypericum reflexum
Hypericum reptans
Hypericum reductum
Hypericum revolutum Vahl
Hypericum richeri
Hypericum roeperanum Schimp. ex A. Rich.
Hypericum rumeliacum
Hypericum sampsonii
Hypericum scopulorum
Hypericum scouleri – Western St. John’s-wort
Hypericum setosum
Hypericum socotranum
Hypericum sphaerocarpum – Roundfruit St. John’s-wort
Hypericum spruneri
Hypericum stellatum
Hypericum subsessile
Hypericum tenuicaule
Hypericum tetrapterum – Square-stalked St. John’s-wort, Square-stemmed St. John’s-wort, St. Peter’s-wort, Peterwort
Hypericum tomentosum
Hypericum tortuosum
Hypericum trichocaulon
Hypericum triquetrifolium – Curled-leaved St. John’s-wort
Hypericum undulatum – Wavy St. John’s-wort
Hypericum uralum
Hypericum vacciniifolium
Hypericum wilsonii
Hypericum xylosteifolium – Turkish Tutsan
Hypericum yakusimense
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Posted on November 21, 2012, in HEALTH AND BEAUTY FROM THE NATURE- THE GREEN PHARMACY. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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